Sanitary sewer design
Waste water management has only been around since the 1800s. Before that people dumped waste into gutters, ditches and even out open windows. Look out below!
Cities began constructing extensive sewer systems in the late 19th and 20th centuries to help control the outbreaks of disease. These construction projects were the largest public work projects of the time period.
These early sewer systems allowed a rise in population in cities as life expectancy increased while rates of disease went down.
Gravity sanitary sewer systems are the most common system and are used to collect waste water from residential, commercial and industrial sources.
Sewers are pipelines that begin with connecting pipes from buildings called laterals. Lateral or branch lines form the first element of the waste water collection system. Lateral sewer lines connect into main sewer lines.
Main sewer lines convey waste water to trunk sewer lines.
Trunk sewer lines are large pipes used to convey waste water to treatment plants or other disposal facilities.
Manholes are used for access to sewer pipes and facilitate vertical and horizontal angles in otherwise straight pipelines.